Zombieload flaw affects most modern Intel chips
Researchers have discovered a critical flaw in nearly all Intel processors released since 2011 that could allow attackers to access any data that has been recently accessed by the processor.
The Zombieload exploit was discovered by the same Dutch researchers who found the similar Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities last year.
The hardware exploit involves taking advantage of a flaw in Intel’s Microarchitectural Data Sampling (MDS) speculative execution technology to access data being used by applications, containers and virtual machines.
Intel has admitted that the exploit “may allow a malicious user who can locally execute code on a system to infer the values of protected data otherwise protected by architectural mechanisms”.
While it would be extremely difficult to target particular data on a system, attackers may be able to infer protected data by collecting and analysing large amounts of data. User-level and system-level information could equally be exposed in this way.
The Zombieload speculative execution method could potentially be used to expose data in store buffers within CPUs caches, temporary buffers between CPU caches and temporary buffers used while loading data into registers.
While Intel is releasing new microcode updates to help software mitigate these issues, these protective measures will require changes and updates to operating systems, hypervisors and Intel Software Guard Extensions. Companies including Microsoft, Red Hat and VMware have already released software updates to mitigate the vulnerabilities.
Security experts have advised that the only way to almost fully protect against the use of the exploit is to disable hyperthreading on affected CPUs, which Intel says could reduce processor performance by up to 9%.
But according to the researchers, this would not prevent attacks on system call return paths that leak data from kernel space to user space.
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